Questions for practical

Lesson # 1. Methods of studying topographic anatomy. General surgical technique.


1. Classification of surgical instruments, its application. General surgical instruments.

 2. Basic principles of disconnection and connectivity of tissues.

3. Types of surgical nodes, suture material, methods of suturing.

 4. The main methods of temporary and final stop bleeding in the wound.

 5. Principles of PCW of wounds of soft tissues.

6. Indications for the use of primary, primary-delayed and secondary sutures.




The concept of simultaneous, microsurgical,

endoscopic, endovascular, cosmetic and aesthetic surgery.

General principles of transplantation of organs and tissues.


Lesson # 2. Topographical anatomy of the areas of the forearm.


1. Deltoid area, boundaries, layered topography.

 2.  Sub- deltoid cellular space and its connection with other regions.

3. Topography of the vessels and nerves surrounding the surgical neck of the humerus.

 4. Scapular region, musculoskeletal landmarks, bone-fibrous lodges and their contents

5. Major vascular-neural bundles of the scapular region.

6. Scapular anastomatic circle and its role in the development of collateral circulation in the ligation of the axillary artery.

7. Ways of spread of inflammation from the scapular region.

8. Ligaments, muscles surrounding the shoulder joint. Why in the shoulder joint are possible "habitual" dislocations.

 9. Projection of the joint space, the border of attachment of the capsule of the joint, its weak points.

10. Sub-сlavicular regoin: borders, external landmarks, layered structure.

11. Superficial and deep  subpectorale  cell spaces

12. Axillary region: external landmarks, borders, layered structure.

13. Topography of the axillary artery and its relationship with the branches of the brachial plexus along triangles.

14. The nature of the structure of cellulose and the features of the flow of phlegmons of the axillary basin. Five groups of lymph nodes.


Lesson # 3. Topography of shoulder and elbow joint area, forearm areas.


1. External reference points and boundaries of the shoulder and elbow area.

2. Topography of lateral cuts of the shoulder at the level of the upper, middle and lower third.

3. The main neurovascular bundle of the anterior region of the shoulder.

4. Vascular bundle of the posterior region of the shoulder.

5. Internal reference points for access to the radial nerve in the middle third of the shoulder.

6. External landmarks and boundaries of the elbow area.

7. Vascular bundles of the ulnar region.

8. Elbow joint and weak points of its capsule.

9. Levels of ligation of the brachial artery on the shoulder and in the ulnar fossa.

10. External landmarks, boundaries, division of the forearm area.

11. Front fascial bed of the forearm, layers. neurovascular bundles.

12. Topography of vascular-neural formations in the upper, middle and lower thirds of the forearm.

13. Cellular space of Pirogov-Paron and its connection with the spaces of the hand and the ulnar region.

 14. Posterior and lateral fascial forearm beds, layers, vascular-neural bundles.


Lesson # 4. Topographic anatomy of the dorsum and palmar surfaces of the hand, wrist joint. Operations for purulent-inflammatory diseases of the upper limb. Blockades. Tendon seam.



1. The area of ​​the wrist and hand, external landmarks, borders.

2. The palm surface of the hand, innervation of the skin of the hand and fingers, features of the structure of the skin and subcutaneous tissue.

4. Wrist canal, radial and ulnar canals of the wrist.

5. Aponeurosis and fascial folds of the palm, cell spaces of the palm.

6. Synovial and osteo-fibrous sheath of tendons of finger flexures, their structure and significance in the spread of inflammatory processes on the hand.

7. Wrist joint, projection of the joint space, articular capsule, its weak points, blood supply and innervation.

8. The back surface of the brush, the zones of cutaneous innervation, the layers.

9. Bone-fibrous canals, vascular-neural formations of the dorsal surface of the hand. 10. Projections of articular slits of metacarpophalangeal, interphalangeal joints, their ligamentous apparatus.

11. Incisions with purulent inflammation of the hand, fingers (draw a diagram).

13. Blockade by Oberst-Lukashevich and Brown-Usoltseva.

14. Opening of inflammatory processes of free upper limb.

15. Technique of imposing a tendon suture.


Lesson # 5. Topography of the gluteal region and thigh, hip joint.



1. External landmarks, borders of the gluteal region.
2. Layers, fascia, cell spaces, vascular neural formations of the gluteal region.
3. Connection of the cellular spaces of the gluteal region with the spaces of the   pelvis and hip.
4. Posterior region of the thigh, layers, fascial bed.
5. Position of fragments with fracture of the femur at various levels.
6. Incisions with phlegmon gluteal region and hamstring.
7. External reference points, the front of the hip.
8. Topography of muscular and vascular lacunae.
9. Femoral canal, walls, inner and outer ring, contents. 
10. Femur triangle, layers, iliac crest.
11. Topography of vascular-neural formations in the Scarpian triangle
12. Blocking  vascular-neuromuscular bundle, blockage channel, blocking hernias.
13. Lead (canter) channel, walls, holes.
14. Hip joint, projection of joint space.
15. The joint capsule and the apparatus strengthening it, the weak points of the joint capsule,
      blood supply and innervation.
16. Position of the femoral head with dislocations.
17. Position of fragments at femoral neck fractures.


Lesson # 6. Topography of the knee, popliteal, shin, ankle and foot regions.


1. The area of ​​the knee, external landmarks, boundaries.
2. Anterior region of the knee, layers, vascular-neural formations, synovial bags.
3. Posterior region of the knee (popliteal fossa).
4. Level of dressing of the popliteal artery.
5. Knee joint that strengthens the apparatus.
6. Capsule of the joint, its weak points. Synovial twists and their role in the spread of purulent swelling in arthritis.
7. Shin area, external landmarks, borders, division.
8. Anterior and lateral fascial folds of the lower leg, layers
9. Topography of vascular-neural formations in the upper, middle and lower thirds of the lower shin
10. Fascial bed of the posterior region of the tibia, muscle layers.
11. The popliteal popliteal canal, the contents.
12. The connection of the pharyngeal space with the cells of the popliteal fossa and foot.
13. The Pirogov Canal.
14. The position of fragments in fractures of the lower leg bones at different levels.
15. External reference points, borders of ankle joint area.
16. Topography of tendons, synovial  sheath  and a neurovascular bundle
      area of ​​the medial malleolus, ankle canal
17. The area of ​​the lateral malleolus, layers, the topography of tendons and vascular formations.
18. Bone fibrosis channels, layers, topography of tendons and vascular formations. 

19. Back area (Achilles tendon region), layers, synovial bags, vessels and nerves. 20. Capsule and strengthening apparatus of the ankle joint, blood supply, innervation. 
21. Topography of the dorsal region of the foot. 
22. Projection of the transverse tarsal joint (Chopar) and the preglial joint (Lisfranca), the zone of cutaneous innervation. 
23. Area of ​​the sole, layers, fascial beds. 
24. Topography of vascular-neural bundles. Cellular spaces.

Lesson #  7. Operations on the bones and joints of the limbs.


1. Technique of puncture of the shoulder, elbow, wrist joints.

2. Technique of puncture of the hip, knee, ankle joints. 
3. Technique of opening the shoulder, elbow, wrist joints.
4. The technique of opening the hip, knee, ankle joints. 
5. Resection of the shoulder, elbow, wrist joints. 
6. Resection of the hip, knee, ankle joint. 
7. Operations on the bones of extremities in fractures and osteomyelitis.
8. Surgery for injuries to tendons. 
9. Arthroplasty of the shoulder, elbow, hip, knee joints.


Lesson # 8. Amputation and exarticulation of the extremities. 


1. Definition of amputation and exarticulation: absolute, relative indications. Types of amputations and timing.
 2. Stages of amputation and their characteristics. Intersection of soft tissues. Treatment of bone and periosteum. Toilet wound. 
3. Methods of covering the amputation stump (fascio, myo-, bone-plastic). 
4. Anesthesia. Indication and technique of applying a tourniquet. Special tools for amputation and its use. 
5. Amputation and exarticulation on the hand.
 6. Amputation of the forearm and exarticulation in the wrist joint. Operation Krukenberg-Albrecht.
 7. Amputation of the shoulder.
8. Amputation and exarticulation on the foot. 
9. Amputation of the leg: osteoplastic by N. I. Pirogov and throughout. 
10. Hip amputation: osteoplastic and throughout.
11. Exarticulation in the hip joint.
12. The vicious stump and the reasons for its formation. Reamputation.



ISSUES   amputations equipment at different levels. The possibility of prosthetics

Lesson # 9. Operations on the vessels and nerves of the upper and lower limbs. Projection anatomy of the NVB of the extremities


1. General principles of vascular surgery. Special tools.
2. Vascular ligation. Technique and levels of superposition of ligatures on the main vessels of the extremities. Tools.
3. Performing access to expose the major NVB  during the course of the final stop of bleeding
4. Requirements and technique of superposition of the vascular suture according to Carrel and Morozova.
5. General principles of mechanical seam of vessels. Vascular plastic surgery.
6. Projection lines and incisions for exposing and dressing the subclavian artery and axillary artery according to Petrovsky and Janelidze. 

9. Operative access to the subclavian, axillary, brachial, radial, ulnar arteries. Interaction with the adjacent nerve, the projection of NVB. Forbidden Zone Canavella. 
10. Projections of the external iliac, femoral, popliteal, posterior and anterior tibial arteries. 
11. Operative access to the external iliac, femoral, popliteal, posterior and anterior tibial arteries. Interrelation with the adjacent nerve, the projection of NVB. 
12. Operations on the vessels of the extremities. Vascular suture. Vessel dressing in the wound and throughout. 
13. Operations for varicose veins of the lower limb. 
14. Operations on the nerves of the extremities. Seam of nerve. 
15. Venipuncture. Venues of Venesection.

Lesson #10. Technique for performing practical skills in the sections "Finiteness". PST of wound. Exposure of the NVB  of the extremities. Incisions in purulent diseases of the lower limb. The final lesson.


1. The location of the incisions at the opening of phlegmon in the region of free upper and lower limbs.
2. The technique of performing venesection and venepuncture.
3. Stop bleeding in the wound and during the damage to the main vascular bundle of the extremities. Vascular suture
4. Principles and techniques of nerve seam.
5. Principles and techniques of the circular and lateral seam of the vascular wall.
6. Technique of injections (intradermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous).
7. Technique of performing joint puncture.
8. Locations of performing joint dissection. 
9. Technique of performing PST  of wounds of the extremities.

Lesson # 11. Topographic anatomy of the brain part of the head. Operations on the cranial vault. PST of  wound. 


1. Borders, external reference points of the cerebral part of the head.
2. Topography of the frontal-parietal-occipital region. 
3. Topographic anatomy of the temporal region. 
4. Topographic anatomy of the mastoid region. 
5. Features of blood supply to soft tissues of the cranial vault. 
6. Topography of the main nerve trunks of the brain region of the head. 
7. Topography of the inner surface of the skull base.
8. Shells of the brain, near-shell spaces, venous sinuses. 
9. The Kranelein-Bryusova scheme, its practical significance 

10. Localization of hematomas, taking into account the layered topography of the cerebral part of the head. 
11. Connections of extracranial and intracranial veins and their practical importance. 12. Toolkit used for operations on the skull. 
13. Primary surgical treatment of wounds of the brain region of the head. 
14. Features of processing of scalp wounds. 
15. Techniques of bone-plastic and decompressive trepanation of the skull. 
16. The triangle of Shipo. Antrumotomy. Complications

 Lesson # 12. Topography of the facial part of the skull. Operations on the facial part of the skull. PST of  wound 


1. Borders, external reference points of the facial part of the head. 
2. Topographic anatomy of the anterior region of the face, the chin area.
 3. Topographic anatomy of the lateral area of ​​the face: buccal, parotid-chewing. 
4. Deep area of ​​the face, cell spaces. 
5. Topography of the facial and trigeminal nerves Projections of branches on the face.
 6. Features of venous outflow of the face. 
7. Requirements and techniques for primary surgical treatment of facial wounds. 
8. Incisions with phlegmon of the face.
 9. Topographical and anatomical prerequisites for the unfavorable course of inflammatory processes in the region of the parotid salivary gland. Opening phlegmon


Lesson  # 13. Topographic anatomy and operative surgery of the neck area.


1. Topographical anatomy of the neck, division into regions, triangles of the neck.

 2. Nadal region of the neck. Topography of the chin, submandibular, sleeping triangles.

3. Topography of the main neck NVB. Levels of common carotid artery division. Distinguishing signs of the internal and external carotid arteries in the wound.

4. The sub-lingual region of the neck. Outflow of lymph.

5. Topography of the neck: larynx, trachea, pharynx, esophagus, thyroid and parathyroid glands (skeleotopia, holotopia, blood supply, innervation, lymphatic drainage).

6. The sternocleidomastoid region, the main NVB of ​​the  area.
7. The ladder-vertebral triangle. Neck of chest lymphatic duct. The subclavian artery and its branches.

8. Lateral triangle of the neck: topography of the scapular-trapezius and scapula-clavicular triangles.

 9. Topography of the thoracic lymph duct in the neck.

10. Cellular spaces of the neck and their connection with neighboring regions


Lesson # 14. PST of  wound neck. Neck neck outcrop. Operations on the organs of the neck.


1. Operative access to the organs of the neck and the main neck  NVB .
2. Vagosimpathetic blockade according to Vishnevsky: indications, technique, signs of performance
3. Blockade of the stellate node of the sympathetic trunk.
4. An anesthesia of the brachial plexus according to Kulenkampfu.
5. Exposure and alcoholization of the diaphragmatic nerve.
6. Exposure of the artery on the neck (carotid, subclavian).
7. Tracheotomy and tracheostomy. Indications, tools, techniques of implementation.
8. Conduction of tracheal intubation, instrumentation.
 9. The technique of inserting the cannula into the trachea (2 options). Complications of tracheostomy.
10. Access to the cervical esophagus. Surgery in the cervical esophagus.
11. Access to the thyroid gland according to Kocher. Subtotal and subfascial resection of the thyroid gland according to Nikolaev.
12. Opening of abscesses and phlegmon of neck. Opening and draining of closed and non-closed spaces of the neck.

Lesson # 15. Surgical anatomy of the chest wall, breast, pleura, lungs. 


1. Chest boundaries, division into regions, vertical orientation lines, constitutional features of form.
 2. Layered topography of the chest. 
3. Topography of the breast, lymphatic drainage. 
4. Subpectoral cellular spaces. 
5. Structure of intercostal spaces, their contents. Comparative characteristics of intercostal spaces. 
6. Topography of the diaphragm, weak points. 
7. Topography of the pleura; sinuses, their practical significance. 
8. Topography of the lungs: lobes, segments, zones.
9. Types of mastitis. Incisions in mastitis. 
10. Technique of sectoral resection of the breast. 
11. Basic principles of radical mastectomy.


Lesson # 16. Surgical anatomy of the mediastinum.


1. The concept of "mediastinum" and its division.
2. Topography of the anterior mediastinum.
3. Topography of the pericardium: skeleton, sintopia, holotopia, sinuses, their practical significance.
4. Topography of the heart: skeleton and sintopia, holotopia. Blood supply and innervation.
5. Topography of large blood vessels of the anterior mediastinum: pulmonary trunk, ascending part and arch of the aorta, upper and lower hollow veins.
6. Topography of the trachea and its bifurcations.
7. Topography of the posterior mediastinum.
8. Topography of the esophagus and vagus nerves. 

9. Topography of the descending part of the aorta, sympathetic trunk, thoracic lymphatic duct, unpaired and semi-unpaired veins. 
10. The technique of puncture of the pericardium (safety triangle). 
11. Operative access to the heart. 
12. Operative access to the thoracic esophagus.


Lesson  # 17. Operations on the thoracic cavity and mediastinum.


1. Puncture of the rib-diaphragmatic sinus. Tools

2. Chest injuries: penetrating, non-penetrating.

3. Types of pneumothorax. Fighting pneumothorax. Sewing pneumothorax.

 4. Valve pneumothorax, "balloting" of the mediastinum, pleuropulmonary shock.

5. Operative access to the lungs.

6. Lateral thoracotomy. Tools for subperiosteal resection of the rib. Technique of execution.

7. Technique of suturing the wound of the lung. Features of the implementation of seams.

8. Surgical treatment of lung abscess.

9. Pneuromonectomy: indications, technique of performance.

10. Lobectomy, segmentectomy: indications, technique. 
11. Acquired heart defects, the principles of their surgical treatment.
12. The technique of suturing the wound of the heart.
13. Surgical treatment of uninfected botulinum duct.
14. Puncture of the pleural cavity (with hydrothorax and pneumothorax). Indication, technique.
15. Technique of sternum puncture for bone marrow extraction. Tools.


Lesson  # 18. The topography of the anterolateral abdominal wall. Weak spots.

 Form of activity - practical session.


  1. Border, external benchmarks, the projection of organs and neurovascular structures in the front wall.
  2. Individual and age differences shapes the abdomen.
  3.  abdomen: the front side wall, abdomen, lumbar region and retroperitoneal space.
  4. Topographic anatomy of the vagina rectus muscles, the lateral abdominal wall.

 Topographic and anatomical conditions of education linea alba hernias, umbilical, inguinal.



Topographic anatomy of the anterolateral wall of the abdomen and its weaknesses.

Determination of content and weaknesses border of the anterior abdominal wall. Suturing of tissue during plastic modeling weaknesses.

The topography of the lumbar region and retroperitoneal space. Technique of surgical interventions on the organs of the retroperitoneal space

The topography of the gate kidneys. Extraperitoneal and transperitoneal accesses to the kidneys and ureters, their comparative characteristic (laparotomic by Fedorov, Pirogov, Bergman, Israel).


Lesson #  19.Surgical anatomy of the inguinal, umbilical and femoral hernias. Hernia repair and plastic.

Form of activity - practical session.


1. Surgical anatomy of abdominal hernias: umbilical, oblique and direct inguinal, moving, birth.

2. Postoperative hernia.

3. The surgical tools and instruments.

4. Operation on the anterior abdominal wall hernias: inguinal, femoral, umbilical, the umbilical cord, the white line of the abdomen.

5. abdominal puncture (paracentesis)

6.Laparoskopiya, transumbilkalnaya portogepatografiya, splenoportography.

7.Laparotomiya, species and their comparative evaluation. Laparoscopic surgery.


Lesson #  20. Topographical anatomy of the upper abdomen.

 Form of activity - practical session.


  1. Structure and function of the peritoneum, floors, bags, sinus canals pockets.
  2. Clinical anatomy of the abdominal esophagus, stomach, duodenum
  3. Clinical anatomy of the liver, gall bladder and of extrahepatic bile ducts,
  4. Clinical anatomy of the spleen and pancreas.
  5. Features arterial blood supply to organs and the venous outflow.

Innervation of the organ, the regional lymph nodes.



Topographical anatomy of the upper abdominal organs. peritoneum and the course of education of the peritoneum in the upper floor

Blood supply, lymph drainage, innervation of the abdominal cavity. Possible ways of spreading the infection. Technique audit upper abdomen.

Gastric surgery: gastrotomy, suturing perforated gastric ulcer, gastroenterostomy (vperediobodochnoy) retrocolic. Gastrectomy Billroth-I. Operations on the liver: sutures parenchymatous organ. cholecystectomy Splenectomy

The operations on the abdominal organs.

The puncture of the abdominal cavity. Intestinal suture technique. Appendectomy. Bowel resection superimposed intestinal anastomoses. Overlay unnatural anus.

The operations on the abdominal organs

Gastrotomy, suturing of perforated gastric ulcer, gastrostomy, gastrojejunostomy. Gastrectomy. Suturing wounds small intestine and colon. Bowel resection with anastomosis "end to end", "side to side", "end to side". Suture liver, splenectomy, cholecystectomy. Suturing parenchymal organ injury. Suture liver. Splenectomy


Lesson #  21.  Topographic anatomy of the organs of the lower floor of the abdominal cavity. General principles of imposition of intestinal sutures. Technique perform basic operations on the small and large intestine.

 Form of activity - practical session.

questions :

  1. The topography of the small and large intestine.
  2. 2.Hod peritoneum in the lower floor, the connection formations peritoneum in the abdomen.
  3.  Revision of the abdominal cavity in penetrating wounds.
  4. Theoretical bases and methods of superimposing intestinal sutures.
  5. Resection of the small and large intestines.
  6. Technique anastomosis "end to end", "side to side", "end to side" with and without opening.
  7. Appendectomy,
  8. Removing Mekkeleva diverticulum.
  9.  Fecal fistula, unnatural anus.
  10. Operations at megacolon and Hirschsprung's disease




Topographic anatomy of the lower floor of the abdominal cavity. The course of the peritoneum and the formation of the peritoneum in the lower floor. Revision abdominal cavity for bleeding and damage the wall of the penis. Types of intestinal sutures and anastomoses of hollow organs.

Intestinal seams: Lambert, Albert Schmid, black, Pirogov-Bireh, Mateshuka, Kirpatovsky. Formation of anastomoses "side to side", "end to side", "end to end". colon mobilization. Resection of the small intestine. Appendectomy. Technique abdominal audit Possible ways of infection

Technique perform operations on the upper abdomen organs: stomach, duodenum. Anastomoses, gut sutures

Lesson # 22. Operations on organs upper abdomen

Form of activity - practical session.


  1. Closure of perforated gastric ulcer, gastrotomy.
  2.  Gastrostomy for strain-Kader, Witzel, Toproveru.
  3. Formation of the front and rear gastroanastomozov.
  4. Gastrectomy Billroth I and modification.
  5. Gastrectomy Billroth II and modifications. biliodigestive derivations



Lesson # 23. The operations on the abdominal organs.

Form of activity - practical session.


  1. of the liver and biliary tract operation.
  2. Blockade of the round ligament liver.
  3. Suture liver injury, anatomical and atypical liver resection; the concept of surgical treatment of liver abscesses; portal hypertension.
  4. Cholecystectomy, cholecystostomy forming anastomoses biliodigestive
  5.  The concept of a liver transplant.
  6. Operations in the spleen. The seam of the spleen, splenectomy, spleen autotransplantation in traumatic injuries.

Operations in the pancreas. Accesses to the pancreas. The concept of operations in acute and chronic pancreatitis, cysts and abscesses.


Lesson # 24.The topography of the lumbar region and retroperitoneal space. Technique of surgical interventions in the retroperitoneal space.

Form of activity - practical session.


  1. Projection organs and large vessels retroperitoneum to the skin of the abdominal wall and the anterior lumbar region.
  2. Medial and lateral sections, layers and their characterization, blood vessels, nerves. Weaknesses, cellular spaces.
  3.  Regional lymph nodes.
  4. Clinical anatomy of the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
  5.  Topographic anatomy of the abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava, a steam room and hemiazygos veins.
  6.  Formation of the thoracic duct.
  7. Surgical instruments and equipment.
  8.  Perirenal blockade on Vishnevsky.
  9. Seam kidney, partial nephrectomy, nephropexy, pielotomiya, nephrectomy.
  10. The concept of renal transplantation.
  11. Suture ureter, plastic surgery for defects ureters.

Autopsy of inflammatory foci lumbar region and retroperitoneum.


Lesson # 25. The operations on the abdominal organs and retroperitoneum.

Form of activity - practical session.


1. Individual, Gender and age features of the structure of the pelvis and pelvic wall.

2nd floor of a small basin. The course of the peritoneum in the male and female pelvis.

3. The fascia and cellular tissue of the pelvis area

4. Urinary and anal triangles: layers and their characteristics, neurovascular structures and cellular spaces.

5. External genitals of men.

6. The external genital organs of women.

7. The crotch portion of the rectum, especially arterial blood supply and venous drainage

8. Regional lymph nodes.  


Lesson # 26.Topographic anatomy of the pelvis and perineum. Pelvic surgery and perineum.

 Form of activity - practical session.


one.Surgical instruments and equipment.

2.Novokainovaya blockade of the spermatic cord and the round ligament of the uterus.

3. pudendal nerve blockade, blockade of intrapelvic Shkolnikov-Selivanov-Tsodyksu.

4. Operations in the bladder: Puncture bladder cystotomy, cystostomy, suturing the wound bladder.

5.Ponyatie a plastic bladder.

6.Operatsii on the prostate gland about the adenoma and prostate cancer.

7. culdocentesis, vaginotomy.

8. Operation when broken ectopic pregnancy.

9. surgery for hemorrhoids, rectal prolapse.

10.Operatsii at undescended testis; hydrocele and spermatic cord, with phimosis and paraofimoze.

11.Ponyatie on transactions with male and female infertility.

12. Upward and downward drainage of the parietal pelvic abscesses




Topographic anatomy and operative surgery of the pelvis and perineum.

Operations on the internal genital organs of women and men. Colostomy in the colon. Drainage of cavity walls and pelvis cellular spaces


Lesson # 27. Operative surgery and topographic anatomy of the spine.



Departments, external benchmarks.

The spine and the spinal canal.

 Individual and age differences of the spine and spinal cord.

Spinal cord membranes, nerve roots. Skeletopy spinal segments.

Blood supply, venous drainage.

Anatomical and physiological study of surgical interventions.

Surgical instruments and equipment. A lumbar puncture.

Laminectomy. Surgical methods for spinal fixation in fractures.

 Reconstructive and stabilizing spinal surgery.

Operations at anomalies of the spine, spinal hernia.