List of questions for the exam

List of questions for the exam
Therapeutics
The list of questions of the theoretical part of the exam on topographic anatomy and operative surgery:

1. Subject and methods for the study of topographic anatomy. Basic concepts of topographic anatomy: the region and its borders; external and internal benchmarks; projection of neurovascular structures and bodies; fascia cellular spaces.

2. The role of domestic scientists in the development of topographic anatomy and operative surgery: Pirogov, P.I.Dyakonov, N.I.Napalkov, V.N.Shevkunenko, A.N.Maksimenkov, V.V.Kovanov C .I.Spasokukotsky, Vishnevsky, N.I.Burdenko.

3. General principles of transplantation of organs and tissues.

4. Topography fronto-parietal-occipital region. Features of the blood supply to the covers of the cranial vault. Technique primary surgical treatment of wounds of the cranial vault.

5. Topography sinuses of the dura mater. The veins of the cranial vault and persons, their connection with intracranial veins and venous sinuses of the dura mater. The value in the spread of purulent infection.

6. Topography of the temporal region. Scheme craniocerebral topography. The projection of the middle meningeal artery. And osteoplastic decompressive craniotomy.

7. Topography mastoid region. Trepanation of the mastoid process. Possible complications.

8. Topography of parotid-masticatory area. The spread of purulent zatokov with mumps. Operations in acute purulent parotitis.

9. Topography buccal area. Features of venous outflow area of ​​the face - venous anastomoses, their importance in the spread of purulent infection.

10. Topography of surface formations side face area. Features of venous outflow area of ​​the face - venous anastomoses, their importance in the spread of purulent infection. Direction surgical incisions on the face.

11. The topography of the deep areas of the face. Fascia and cellular spaces. The spread of purulent zatokov face. Intervention in purulent processes in the face.

12. Area of ​​sternocleidomastoid muscle. Topography of the cervical plexus. Vagosympathetic blockade on Vishnevsky.

13. Topography suprahyoid area. Submental and submandibular

triangles. Submandibular gland. Autopsy submandibular cellulitis.

14. Topography of the submental and submandibular triangle. autopsy

 submandibular cellulitis.

15. Topography sleepy triangle of the neck. Reflex neck area. An autopsy phlegmon

 vaginal fascial primary neurovascular bundle.

16. Topography sternoclavicular-mastoid region. Vagosympathetic blockade on Vishnevsky.

17. The fascia and cellular tissue of the neck area. Autopsy submandibular cellulitis.

18. Fascia and neck kletchatochnyh space. Autopsy retropharyngeal cellulitis.

Classification of the fascia of the neck by Shevkunenko. Closed or open space of the neck ..

19. The fascia and cellular tissue of the neck area. Autopsy phlegmon fascial sheath main neurovascular bundle.

20. Topography of the larynx and cervical trachea. The upper and lower tracheostomy. Konikotomiya.

21. Topography of the pharynx and cervical esophagus. Autopsy pozadipischevodnoy cellulitis. Online access to the cervical esophagus.

22. Topography of the lateral triangle of the neck. Predlestnichnaya and interscalene gap. On-line access to the organs of the neck.

23. Topography staircase-vertebral triangle. Quick access to the common carotid artery in the scapular-tracheal and sleepy triangles.

24. The Topography thoracic duct and neck lymph nodes. Access to the common carotid artery in the sleepy triangle.

25. Topography of thoracic duct and lymph nodes in the neck. Autopsy previstseralnoy cellulitis neck.

26. Topography of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Subtotal subcapsular strumectomy of Nikolaev.

27. Tracheostomy and its species. Possible complications arising from incorrect operation is performed.

28. The topography of the breast. Lymph path. Operations in purulent mastitis.

29. The topography of the breast. Lymph path. Sectoral resection and radical mastectomy.

30. Topography intercostal spaces. Primary surgical treatment of penetrating wounds of the chest wall. ribs subperiosteal resection

31. Topography of the diaphragm. Weaknesses of the diaphragm. Topographic-anatomic substantiation of education diaphragmatic hernias.

32. Topography of the pleura and lung. Segmental structure of the lungs. Online access to the organs of the chest cavity. Puncture and thoracostomy.

33. Topography of the pleura and lung. Segmental structure of the lungs. Puncture and thoracostomy.

34. The topography of the mediastinum. Vessels, nerves and nerve plexus posterior mediastinum. Surgical approaches to the anterior and posterior mediastinum.

35. Topography vessels, nerves and nerve plexus of the mediastinum. Reflex zones.

36. Topography of the heart and pericardium. Topography of the thoracic aorta. Pericardiocentesis.

37. Topography of thoracic trachea, bifurcation of the trachea and main bronchi. The lymph nodes of the chest cavity. Online access to the organs of the chest cavity.

38. Topography of the thoracic esophagus and vagus nerves. Line access to the thoracic esophagus.

39. Topography thoracic duct lymph nodes of the thoracic cavity. Puncture and drainage of the pleural cavity.

40. Fascia cellular spaces and mediastinum. The spread of purulent zatokov. Surgical approaches to the posterior mediastinum organs.

41. The topography of the anterolateral abdominal wall. Surgical approaches to the organs of the abdominal cavity.

42. Topography of the anterolateral abdominal wall. Topographic-anatomic substantiation of formation of umbilical hernia. Operations when umbilical hernias.

43. Topography of the inguinal canal. Topographic-anatomic substantiation of the emergence of acquired oblique inguinal hernia. Plastic inguinal canal of Girard-Spasokukotsky the weld Kimbarovskogo modification.

44. Topography of the inguinal canal. Topographic-anatomic substantiation of occurrence of direct inguinal hernia. Sliding hernia. Plastic inguinal canal by Bassini.

45. The topography of the inguinal canal. Topographic-anatomic substantiation of formation of congenital inguinal hernia. Features of treatment of hernia sac in congenital inguinal hernia.

46. ​​The topography of the femoral canal, femoral hernia. Femoral and inguinal methods operations in femoral hernias.

47. The peritoneal cavity. Division by floors. Subdiaphragmatic space. Predzheludochnaya and stuffing bags. On-line access to the cavity omental.

48. The peritoneal cavity. Division by floors. The topography of the pancreas. Quick access to the pancreas.

49. Topography of the liver, its segmental structure. Hepatoduodenal bunch. Methods for stopping bleeding in liver damage. Liver suturing wounds.

50. The topography of the gallbladder, biliary tract and hepatoduodenal ligament. Quick access to the gallbladder. Operations: cholecystendysis, cholecystectomy, choledochotomy.

51. Topography of the abdominal portion of the esophagus and stomach. Closure of perforated gastric ulcer.

52. Topography of the abdominal portion of the esophagus and stomach. Types gastrojejunostomy.

 A vicious circle and the reasons for its formation.

53. Topography of the abdominal portion of the esophagus and stomach. Gastrectomy Billroth-I, Billroth-II to modify the Hofmeister-Finsterer.

54. Topography of duodenum and the duodenal-jejunal flexure. processing methods duodenal stump with gastrectomy.

55. Topography of the spleen. Splenectomy.

56. Topography of the packing bags. Gland hole. On-line access to the cavity omental.

57. Topography of the packing bags. The topography of the pancreas. Quick access to the pancreas.

58. Topography of the small intestine. Rule Gubarev. small intestine revision method.

59. Topography of the small intestine. Mesenteric sinuses (sinus). Revision of the abdominal cavity. resection technique of the small intestine and the imposition of intestinal anastomosis means the "end-to-end" and "side-to-side."

60. Topography of the cecum and the appendix. Surgical approaches and appendectomy technique.

61. Topography of the colon. Colostomy. Operation overlay unnatural anus by the method Maidla.

62. Topography of the small and large intestines. Technique audit abdominal cavity for bleeding and damage the hollow body. Intestinal seams, general requirements for the imposition of intestinal sutures. Closure of penetrating wounds of the small intestine.

63. Topography of kidneys, the fixing apparatus kidneys. Decapsulation. Nephropexy.

64. Topography of the lumbar region. Weak spots. Fascia and cellular tissue formation retroperitoneal space. Perirenal blockade, possible complications.

65. Topography of kidneys, ureters and adrenal glands. Surgical approaches to the kidneys and ureters.

66. Topography of the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava. Nerve plexus, lymph nodes, retroperitoneal space. Surgical approaches to the kidneys and ureters.

67. Progress in the peritoneum male and female pelvis. Drainage vesico-rectal and utero-rectal recesses.

68. Topography of female pelvic peritoneal department. Drainage of the utero-rectal cavity. The puncture of the abdominal cavity through the posterior vaginal fornix.

69. Topography of female pelvic peritoneal department. The topography of the uterus with appendages. Surgery for an ectopic pregnancy.

70. Topography of the bladder. Predpuzyrnoe retrovesical and cellular spaces. Puncture of the bladder.

71. The topography of the bladder, urethra, prostate, vas deferens. Operations in wounds of the bladder. Methods drainage predpuzyrnogo cellular spaces.

72. fascial-cellular spaces of a small basin. The spread of purulent zatokov. Blockade of the lumbar and sacral plexus of Shkolnikov-Selivanov.

73. Topography of the rectum. Pozadipryamokishechnoe cellular spaces. The spread of purulent zatokov. Surgery for injuries of the rectum.

74. Topography scapular region. Arterial anastomoses and development of collateral circulation in the axillary artery occlusion.

75. Topography of the subclavian area. Subclavian and axillary lymph nodes. Opening and drainage subpektoralnoy cellulitis.

76. Topography and the deltoid region of the shoulder joint. Puncture of the shoulder joint.

77. Topography of the shoulder joint. Puncture and arthrotomy of the shoulder joint.

78. The topography of the axilla. Online access to the neurovascular bundle. Exposure of the axillary artery.

79. The topography of the anterior-medial shoulder area. Amputation of the shoulder to the middle third of the level.

80. The topography of the back shoulder region. The doctrine of the amputation. Classification of amputations Term: primary, secondary and repeat (reamputatsiya). Amputation of the shoulder in the middle third.

81. Topography of the rear area of ​​the elbow. The elbow joint. Puncture and arthrotomy of elbow joint.

82. The topography of the anterior region of the forearm. Exposure of the radial artery in the lower third of the forearm. Fascial-cellular spaces Pirogov. The spread of purulent infection.

83. The topography of the anterior region of the forearm. Online access to the ulnar neurovascular bundle.

84. Topography of the median bed of palm. Autopsy subgaleal cellulitis median lodge palm on the war-Yasenetsky.

85. Topography of the median bed of palm. Operations during intraosseous and subungual

 panaritiums.

86. Topography of the median bed of palm. Operations in purulent tenosynovitis II, III and IV fingers.

87. Topography lateral bed palm. Operations in purulent tenosynovitis I finger.

88. Topography of the gluteal region. The spread of purulent zatokov podfastsialnogo cellular spaces of the gluteal region. Autopsy podfastsialnoy cellulitis gluteal region.

89. The topography of the femoral triangle. Exposure of the femoral artery and femoral vein below the inguinal ligament.

90. Topography of blood vessels and nerves of the femoral triangle. Exposure of the femoral artery in the femoral triangle.

91. Topography of the obturator canal. The spread of purulent zatokov fastsialno- kletchatochnyh formations. Drainage cellular spaces of the pelvic Buyalsky-McWhorter.

92. Topography of the medial thigh bed. Leading channel. The seam of the vessel Karrelyu-

 Morozova.

93. The topography of the sciatic nerve in the gluteal region and the rear region of the thigh. Exposure of the sciatic nerve in the gluteal region.

94. Topography of the knee joint. Osteoplastic amputation Gritti-Shimanovsky. Principles of formation of the supporting stump.

95. Topography of the popliteal fossa. The development of collateral circulation in the popliteal artery occlusion. The seam of the vessel by Carrel-Morozova.

96. Topography of the popliteal fossa. The development of collateral circulation in the popliteal artery occlusion. Cone-circular amputation Pirogov.

97. The topography of the front region of the tibia.

98. Classification of limb amputations in the form of soft tissue dissection. Fastsioplasticheskaya amputation of the lower leg.

99. The rear region of the tibia topography. Goleno-popliteal channel. Osteoplastic amputation of the lower leg of Pirogov.

100. Topography of the front area of ​​the ankle and rear foot. Exposure of dorsal artery of foot.

101. Field of the medial malleolus. The medial malleolar channel. Purulent zatokov propagation path of the medial malleolar channel.

102. Topography of the area of ​​the sole. Heel and plantar channels. Autopsy subgaleal cellulitis soles on the war-Yasenetsky.