Questions for classes for II year students of the IMEiFK specialty "Medicine"

Topic 1. History of the development of surgery. Great surgeons. Deontology.

Form holding - a practical lesson.

Questions:

1. Epoch of the development of surgery.

2. The development of surgery until the 19th century.

3. The ideological precursors of antiseptics (L. Pasteur, N. And. Pirogov) and its creators (I. Zemmelweis, D. Lister).

4. The role of Pirogov N.I. in the development of surgery.

5. The development of surgery in the 19-20 centuries.

6. The development of surgery in Russia.

7. The current stage of development of surgery.

8. Deontology - the concept.

9. Ethical behavior with patients and doctors.

 

Topic 2. Antiseptic, its types, antiseptic preparations and their use.

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. Antiseptic. Definition of the concept.

2. Types of antiseptics (mechanical, physical, chemical, biological).

3. The mechanism of action of antiseptics,

4. Characteristics of basic antiseptics and antibiotics.

5. Methods of using antiseptic preparations.

6. Rational antibiotic therapy. Complications of antibiotic therapy and their prevention.

7. Enzymotherapy of surgical infection. Used enzymes.

 

Topic 3. Asepsis, sources of infection, prevention of airborne and drip infections. Organization of the surgical department. Preparing the surgeon's hands for surgery.

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. Asepsis. Definition of the concept. The value of asepsis for surgery in modern conditions.

2. Sources of infection. Endogenous and exogenous infections (airborne, contact, implant). The concept of nosocomial, intrahospital, nasocomial infection.

3. Organization of the surgical department, its layout, the main premises and their device.

4. Chambers, dressing, their equipment and cleaning.

5. Operational unit, its device and equipment. Cleaning in the operating room, its types.

6. The behavior of staff and visitors in the operating room.

7. Device and equipment of the surgical clinic office.

8. Orders and instructions of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation on the prevention of intra-hospital infection. The essence of the orders.

9. Training of hands of the personnel for operation.

 

 

Topic 4. Aseptic. Prevention of contact infection. Sterilization of tools, material and linen. Prevention of implantation infection. Sterilization of suture and plastic material.

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. Prevention of contact infection. The concept of contact infection, its sources.

2. Surgical instruments: classification, features of their device, sterilization and care for them.

3. Dressing material: its types and basic properties. Requirements for dressings.

4. Preparation of dressing and surgical material, as well as linen and their sterilization.

5. Autoclave, its device and work.

6. Sterilization gloves.

7. Preparation of the surgical field.

8. Hot air (dry heat) sterilization in dry heat ovens (air sterilizers).

9. Control of autoclave sterilization and dry heat ovens (air sterilizers).

10. Implant infection. The concept and its sources.

11. Suture material, its types and purpose, classification by source. Requirements.

12. Modern stitching machines. Their types and purpose. Suture material applied here. Sterilization of the sewing devices.

13. Autoplastic materials used in surgery and traumatology and their sterilization.

14. Homoplastic materials used in surgery and traumatology and their sterilization.

Topic 5. General issues of anesthesiology. Methods of general anesthesia, indications, contraindications and complications. Methods of local anesthesia.

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. General anesthesia (anesthesia). Types of anesthesia as prescribed. Mechanisms of action of drugs on the body (the theory of anesthesia).

2. Preparations used for general anesthesia and their pharmacodynamics.

3. Muscle relaxants, their mechanism of action and complications.

4. The clinical course of anesthesia in stages.

5. Mask anesthesia. Indications, contraindications and complications.

6. Endotracheal anesthesia. Indications, contraindications and complications.

7. Intravenous anesthesia. Indications, contraindications and complications.

8. Local anesthesia. Preparations for local anesthesia, their pharmacodynamics. Local layered infiltration anesthesia by the method of tight creeping infiltration according to Vishnevsky.

9. Methods of local anesthesia. Indications, contraindications and complications.

10. Local intraosseous, intravenous and intraarterial anesthesia. Indications, contraindications and complications.

11. Conductive, spinal and epidural anesthesia. Indications, contraindications and complications.

 

Theme 6. Resuscitation in violation of the vital functions of the body

The form of conducting - a practical lesson, work in the simulation center - a business game.

Questions:

1. Neuroleptanalgesia. Indications, contraindications and complications. Used drugs.

2. Equipment for anesthesia and mechanical ventilation (ALV). Methods of mechanical ventilation.

3. Methods for managing vital body functions (artificial hypotension, hypothermia.

4. Reanimation. Notion Vital functions of the body, their types and causes of violations.

5. Methods of elementary and skilled resuscitation. Restoration of the patency and function of the respiratory system, circulatory system and metabolism. The equipment used for resuscitation.

6. Central venous pressure (CVP).

 

Topic 7. Bleeding and blood loss. Concept, classification, first aid and treatment. Methods to stop external bleeding.

Form holding - a practical lesson. Work in the simulation center is a business game.

Questions:

1. The concept of bleeding and blood loss. The hemostasis system is normal.

2. Classification of bleeding.

3. External bleeding, causes, clinic.

4. Internal bleeding, causes, clinic.

5. Temporary methods to stop bleeding.

6. Plaits to stop external bleeding, their types, the technique of blending, depending on the location of the bleeding and its nature.

7. Methods for the final stop of bleeding. Blood loss treatment.

8. The reaction of the body to bleeding and blood loss. The value of compensatory mechanisms.

9. Factors contributing to independent bleeding. Outcomes of bleeding.

10. Catheterization, puncture of the central (subclavian, femoral, internal jugular) and peripheral veins.

11. Methods of determination and value for determining the volume of blood loss and the degree of blood loss.

 

Topic 8. Disorder of blood coagulation in surgical patients and methods for their correction. Endogenous intoxication and water and electrolyte disturbances in surgery.

              The principles of its correction.

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. The hemostasis system is normal.

2. Methods for the study of hemostasis.

3. The effect of diseases, injuries and surgeries on hemostasis.

4. Thromboembolic complications, causes, clinical presentation, treatment and prevention.

5. Reduction of blood coagulation properties in diseases, injuries, operations.

6. Hemorrhagic syndrome in surgery. DIC or TGS-syndrome.

7. The concept of endogenous intoxication and its main types in surgical patients.

8. Clinical and laboratory findings. Assessment of the severity of patients.

9. Principles of complex treatment. Stimulation of natural detoxification mechanisms, artificial detoxification.

10. Efferent detoxification methods.

11. Surgical elimination of endogenous intoxication.

12. Water-electrolyte disorders in surgical patients, causes.

13. Clinical and laboratory diagnosis of water and electrolyte disorders in surgical patients.

14. Methods of correction of water and electrolyte disorders, applied solutions.

15. Dangers and complications of plasma-replacement solutions.

16. Preparations for parenteral nutrition in order to correct protein exchange.

 

Theme 9. Blood type and Rh factor. Determination of blood type.

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. Historical data. The concept of science - transfusiology.

2. Erythrocyte and plasma factors of blood groups (agglutinogens and agglutinins). The designation of blood groups.

3. Method of determining blood groups. Errors in the determination of blood groups.

4. Rh factor, its value, the method of determination.

5. Compatibility tests. Methods of conducting tests.

6. Indications and contraindications for blood transfusion and its components and preparations.

7. Preservation of blood. Preparation of components and blood products, their storage and shelf life.

8. The mechanism of action of transfused blood.

9. Ways of blood components transfusion. Intraosseous path. Method of puncture of the epiphysis of large bones, sternum. Other indications for these punctures.

 

Topic 10. Transfusion of blood components and blood substitutes.

               Errors and complications. Donation

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. Technique of intravenous, intraarterial and intraosseous transfusion of blood and its components.

2. Mistakes, dangers and complications during the transfusion of blood and its components, their prevention and treatment.

3. Exchange transfusions, blood reinfusion, transfusion of canned autologous blood, bone marrow transplantation.

4. Transfusion of carriers of blood gases (erythrocyte mass).

5. Transfusion correctors of hemostasis and fibrinolysis (blood plasma, platelet mass, cryoprecipitate).

6. Transfusion of immunity correction agents (leukovzvesz, plasma of the directed anti-infective action). Blood products and their transfusion.

7. Blood substitutes, purpose and classification. Blood substitutes for hemodynamic, detoxification, parenteral nutrition and regulation of ionic equilibrium.

8. Blood transfusion technique, complications and their prevention and treatment.

9. Donation, organization. Contraindications to donation.

 

Theme 11. Thermal and chemical burns.

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. Thermal burns. Classification according to the degree and stages of flow.

2. Methods for determining the area of ​​destruction.

3. Disorders of the body during thermal burns (shock, toxicosis, plasma loss).

4. Features of shock during thermal burns.

5. Complications of thermal burns (purulent complication, sepsis).

6. First aid for thermal burns.

7. Burn disease. Treatment, outcomes.

8. Organization and work of specialized burn wards and centers.

9. Chemical burns of the skin. Causes, first aid and treatment. Chemical burns of the esophagus, clinic, first aid.

 

Theme 12. Cold injury and electric shock.

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. Frostbite, causes, classification by degrees and area of ​​damage.

2. Modern views on the pathogenesis of frostbite.

3. Symptoms of frostbite in the pre-reactive and reactive periods.

4. First aid and treatment for frostbite. Technique of imposing thermoisolating dressings.

5. Chills and freezing, symptoms, first aid and treatment.

6. Electrotrauma. Causes, local and general effects of electric current on the body. Electric burns, their features.

7. First aid and treatment for electrical injuries.

 

Theme 13. Wounds, wound process, clinical manifestations, first aid, treatment. Treatment of wounds, its types, types of wound healing. Infected wounds.

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. Wounds, classification by origin and nature of wounds, their localization and relationship to body cavities.

2. Clinical manifestations common to all types of wounds.

3. Clinic of wounds depending on their nature and location.

4. The course of the wound process, depending on its phase.

5. Morphological and biochemical changes in the wound.

6. First aid for wounds depending on their nature, complications and attitudes to the body cavities.

7. General principles of treatment of wounds.

8. Medical tactics for fresh wounds, depending on the location, nature of wounds and attitude to the body cavities.

9. Primary surgical treatment of wounds. General concepts and its principles.

10. Justification of the primary treatment of wounds, indications, technique, results.

11. Features of primary treatment of wounds, depending on the nature of the wound.

12. Features of treatment and tactics for wounds penetrating into the body cavity.

13. Features of treatment of wounds depending on related complications (bleeding, bone fractures, hematomas).

14. Types of stitches: primary, primary delayed, secondary and secondary delayed.

15. General principles of treatment of infected wounds.

16. General and local treatment of infected wounds. Wound drainage methods: active, passive, flow-suction and vacuum drainage of wounds.

17. Features of primary surgical treatment of bitten wounds.

 

Theme 14. Desmurgy.

Form holding - a practical lesson. Work in the simulation center is a business game.

Questions:

1. General concepts of desmurgy.

2. Classification of dressings depending on their type and name.

3. Screw dressings, their types, the technique of applying to individual areas of the body.

4. Kanova bandages, their types and overlay technique.

5. Adhesive dressings, their purpose and technique of imposition.

6. Bandages on the body.

7. Bandages on the lower extremities.

8. Headbands.

 

Topic 15. Parasitic surgical diseases.

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. The concept of surgical parasitic diseases.

2. Echinococcosis. Brief ideas about the development cycle of the parasite. Ways of infection. Prevention of echinococcosis.

3. Morphological forms of echinococcosis in humans.

4. Diagnosis of echinococcal cyst in the liver, lungs and other internal organs.

5. Surgical treatment of echinococcosis.

6. Alveococcosis: causes, diagnosis, surgical treatment.

7. Ascariasis. Brief ideas about the development cycle of the parasite. Ways of infection. Prevention of ascariasis.

8. Clinical manifestations of "surgical" ascariasis.

9. Surgical treatment of surgical complications of ascariasis.

10. Opisthorchiasis - damage to the liver, gallbladder, pancreas trematodes.

11. Ways of infection of opisthorchiasis. Prevention of opisthorchiasis.

12. The clinical picture, diagnosis, surgical treatment of complications of opisthorchiasis.

 

Theme 16. Basics of surgical oncology. Tumors.

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. Benign and malignant tumors.

2. Pre-cancerous diseases.

3. General concepts about tumors, benign and malignant tumors, tumor classification, classification of tumors according to various criteria, including the TMNP system. Organization of cancer care.

4. Clinic of tumors and methods of their diagnosis (x-ray, endoscopic, histological, cytological, ultrasound).

5. Pre-cancerous diseases. The need and importance of early diagnosis of malignant tumors.

6. Clinic of connective tissue tumors: benign (fibroma, lipoma, chondroma, osteoma) and malignant (sarcoma).

7. Clinic of tumors from muscular, vascular and nervous tissue (fibroids, angiomas, gliomas, neuromas, ganglioneuromas).

8. Clinic of tumors of epithelial origin: benign (papilloma, adenoma, cystadenoma, dermoid) and malignant (cancer).

9. Surgical treatment of tumors. The possibilities of endoscopic operations.

10. Radiation, chemotherapy, hormonal and combined treatment of tumors - the basic concepts.

11. Treatment outcomes of tumor processes.

 

Theme 17. Malformations

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. The concept of congenital pathology.

2. Congenital malformations of the head.

 3. Anomalies of the face and oral cavity.

4. Congenital fistula and cysts of the neck. Torticollis.

5. Spinal defects.

6. Congenital tumors of the sacrococcygeal region.

7. Congenital malformations of the chest and chest organs.

8. Congenital abdominal defects.

9. Congenital heart defects.

10. The concept of surgical treatment of malformations.

 

Theme 18. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Transplantology.

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. The concept of corrective surgery.

2. The concept of plastic surgery.

3. The concept of reconstructive surgery.

4. Restorative anatomical and functional disorders of organs and systems.

5. Corrective surgery of the consequences and complications of diseases.

 

Questions for classes for 3 year students of the IMEiFK specialty "Medicine"

Theme 1. Examination of the surgical patient.

Form conducting - business and role-playing game.

Questions

1. General clinical research methods: survey, examination, palpation and auscultation.

2. Measurement of organs and body parts.

3. Measurement of the shape of the body part.

4. Measurement of body temperature.

5. Blood pressure measurement.

6. Pulse measurement.

7. Special research methods.

8. Interpretation of laboratory research methods.

9. Interpretation of functional research methods.

10. Interpretation of radiological methods.

11. Interpretation of endoscopic research methods.

12. Interpretation of ultrasound methods.

13. Interpretation of radioisotope research methods.

14. Interpretation of computed tomography.

15. Interpretation of magnetic resonance imaging.

 

Theme 2. Bone fractures. Treatment of bone fractures.

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. Bone fractures: causes, mechanisms, classification.

2. Fractures of large bones: clinic, diagnosis, complications.

3. Features of the clinical signs of fractures of large bones, depending on the location (thigh, shin, shoulder, forearm).

4. Features of mechanisms and clinic fractures of lamellar bones (ribs, skull, pelvis).

5. Some features of the mechanisms and clinic fractures of small bones (spine, foot, hand).

6. First aid for closed fractures of large bones.

7. Features of first aid for open bone fractures.

8. Features of first aid and treatment for fractures of the lamellar and small bones of the pelvis (hand, foot, pelvis, ribs, spine).

9. General principles of treatment of closed and open fractures of large tubular bones.

10. Traumatic amputation of bones and soft tissues, methods of preserving amputated segments for replantation. Methods of microsurgery during replantation.

11. Indications for treatment of fractures of large bones with plaster casts, skeletal traction, the use of osteosynthesis and compression-distraction apparatus.

12. Surgical treatment of fractures of large bones: indications, methods.

13. Features of the treatment of fractures of lamellar and small bones.

14. Morphological changes in the fracture zone at different times. Bone callus formation.

15. Causes of delayed fusion of bone fractures and the formation of false joints. Treatment of patients in such cases.

16. Gypsum, its properties, storage, inspection and quality control.

17. Plaster dressings, their types and use.

 

Theme 3. Dislocation of joints.

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. Dislocations: causes, mechanisms, classification.

2. Clinic, diagnosis, first aid and treatment of shoulder dislocations.

3. Clinic, diagnosis, first aid and treatment of other dislocations.

4. Complications of dislocations, their signs and treatment.

5. Hemarthrosis. Technique puncture large joints. Other indications for puncture of the joints.

6. Types of standard tires and their application. Rules of immobilization for dislocation of bones.

7

Topic 4. Damage to soft tissue. Prolonged Syndrome

and positional compression syndrome.

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. Closed soft tissue injuries (bruises, strains, tears): causes, mechanisms. Hematomas: treatment, methods of puncture.

2. Symptoms of soft tissue injuries: first aid, treatment.

3. Signs of rupture of the ligamentous apparatus of the joints: first aid and treatment. Hemarthrosis: methods of puncture of the joint cavity.

4. Soft tissue tears, their clinic, first aid and treatment.

5. Outcomes of soft tissue damage

6. Syndrome of prolonged compression (VTS) and the syndrome of positional compression: the concept, causes of pathogenesis.

7. Clinical signs of VTS and positional compression syndrome.

8. First aid, treatment and outcomes VTS.

 

Theme 5. Transport immobilization.

Uniform holding is a business game.

Questions:

1. Transport and therapeutic immobilization, the concept and their goals.

2. Types of tires for transport immobilization.

3. The use of available tools and standard tires for transport immobilization. The technique of their imposition.

4. Indications for use of transport immobilization.

5. Immobilization rules.

6. Features of transport immobilization for fractures of large bones.

7. Transport immobilization for fractures of the pelvic bones

8. Transport immobilization for spinal fractures.

9. Possible complications of transport immobilization.

 

Topic 6. Injuries to the skull, chest and abdomen.

Uniform holding is a business game.

Questions:

1. Injuries of the skull: classification, clinic, diagnosis.

2. First aid. First aid, treatment. Spinal (lumbar) puncture: indications, technique.

3. Breast injuries: classification, complications, clinic.

4. First aid and treatment for injuries of the chest.

5. Complications of injuries of the chest (pneumothorax, hemothorax).

6. Indications and techniques of pleural puncture and drainage of the pleural cavity.

7. Heart damage: clinic, first aid, treatment.

8. Puncture and drainage of the pericardial cavity, indications, technique.

9. Abdominal injuries: classification, clinic, diagnosis, first aid, treatment.

10. Laparocentesis: indications, technique.

11. Laparoscopy: indications.

12. Puncture and drainage of the bladder: indications, technique.

 

Topic 7. Acute purulent infection. Common questions, problems.

Purulent diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue.

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. Etiology of acute purulent infection. Pathogens.

2. Pathogenetic mechanisms of acute purulent infection.

3. General and local reaction of the body. Clinical signs are common to all forms of acute purulent infection.

4. Principles of general and local treatment of acute purulent infection.

5. Principles of antibiotic therapy.

6. The use of antiseptics and enzymes.

7. Folliculitis.

8. Furuncle, furunculosis.

9. Carbuncle and carbuncle. Etiopathogenesis, clinic, treatment.

10. Hydradenitis. Etiopathogenesis, clinic, treatment.

11. Abscesses of different locations.

12. Phlegmons of different localizations. Etiopathogenesis, clinic and treatment.

13. Empyema: the concept and its types.

14. Purulent diseases of cellulose spaces (phlegmon of the neck, subfascial and intermuscular phlegmons of the extremities, axillary and subpectoral phlegmons). Clinic, treatment.

15. Purulent mediastinitis: causes, clinic, diagnosis, treatment.

16. Purulent paranephritis and paracolitis: causes, clinic, treatment.

17. Purulent paraproctitis: classification, clinic, treatment. Pararectal fistula.

18. Erysipelas of the skin: etiopathogenesis, classification, clinic, diagnosis, prevention.

 

Topic 8. Acute purulent diseases of soft tissues and glandular organs and lymph nodes.

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. Lymphangitis, concept, form, clinic and treatment.

2. Lymphadenitis, types.

3. Adenoflegmon: concept, forms, clinic and treatment.

4. Mastitis: concept, factors contributing to the disease. Classification of mastitis.

5. Clinic and diagnosis of mastitis. Treatment of mastitis.

6. Mumps: causes, clinic, treatment.

7. Prostatitis: causes, clinic, treatment.

 

Theme 9. Acute purulent-destructive diseases of the abdominal organs.

Purulent inflammatory diseases of the serous cavities.

Form holding - operational game

Questions:

1. Acute purulent-destructive diseases of the abdominal organs, as the cause of peritonitis.

2. Peritonitis: concept, classification.

3. Etiopathogenesis of peritonitis.

4. Clinic and diagnosis of purulent peritonitis.

5. Treatment of peritonitis. Methods of sensing the stomach, small and large intestines. Methods of drainage of the abdominal cavity.

6. Pleurisy. Clinical signs and diagnosis of pleurisy

7. Pleural empyema: concept, classification.

8. Meningitis, as a surgical pathology.

 

Subject 10. Acute purulent diseases of bones, joints, feet.

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. Hematogenous osteomyelitis: concept and classification.

2. Etiology and pathogenesis of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis.

3. Clinic and diagnosis of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis.

4. Treatment of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis.

5. Traumatic and postoperative osteomyelitis. Etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment.

6. Primary chronic forms of osteomyelitis, etiopathogenesis, clinic and treatment.

7. Chronic osteomyelitis. Etiopathogenesis, clinic, diagnosis and treatment.

8. Acute suppurative arthritis. Classification, clinic, treatment. Technique puncture joints and arthrotomy.

9. Purulent diseases of the hand and fingers, causes.

10. Classification of felon and phlegmon brush.

11. Clinic of acute purulent diseases of the hand and fingers.

12. Treatment of felon and phlegmon of the hand.

13. Diabetic foot: concept, forms, clinic, treatment.

 

Topic 11. Sepsis, anaerobic clostridial and non-clostridial soft tissue infections.

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. The concept of sepsis, classification.

2. Etiopathogenesis of sepsis.

3. Clinic and diagnosis of sepsis.

4. Treatment of sepsis.

5. Modern methods of bacteriological confirmation of sepsis.

6. Anaerobic clostridial infection: etiology, pathogenesis, pathogens, patho-anatomical picture.

7. Clinic and diagnosis of various forms of anaerobic infection.

8. General and local treatment of anaerobic infection.

9. Anaerobic non-clostridial infection: etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment.

10. Treatment of anaerobic non-clostridial soft tissue infection.

 

Topic 12. Acute specific infection.

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. Etiology and pathogenesis of tetanus.

2. Clinic and diagnosis of tetanus.

3. Treatment of tetanus.

4. Emergency and routine prevention of tetanus.

5. Anthrax. Etiopathogenesis, clinical features and treatment.

6. Diphtheria wounds. Etiopathogenesis, clinic, diagnosis and treatment.

7. Rabies. Etiopathogenesis, clinic, prevention.

8. Candidomycosis (candidiasis), causes, forms, clinic, diagnosis, treatment.

9. Emergency prevention of tetanus.

10. Emergency prevention of rabies

11. Introduction of sera and vaccines by uncommon

 

Topic 13. Chronic specific infection.

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. Chronic tuberculosis. Notion Modern problems.

2. Surgical forms of pulmonary tuberculosis. Clinic, treatment.

3. Osteo-articular tuberculosis: classification, pathogenesis.

4. Stages of osteo-articular tuberculosis.

5. The clinical course of osteo-articular tuberculosis (general and local symptoms).

6. Peculiarities of the course of the pre-arthritic, arthritic and post-arthritic stages. Complications. Features puncture sinter abscesses.

7. Features of the course of individual forms of osteo-articular tuberculosis (spondylitis, coxitis, drives).

8. Surgical treatment of individual forms of bone and joint tuberculosis.

9. Tuberculosis of lymph nodes (peripheral and intrathoracic).

10. Bone syphilis: clinic, differential diagnosis with osteomyelitis and bone tuberculosis.

11. Actinomycosis: the main localization, pathogenesis, clinic, diagnosis and treatment.

 

Topic 14. Basics of circulatory disorders (necrosis, gangrene, ulcers and fistula).

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. Deaths: the concept, causes and conditions conducive to the development of the disease.

2. Types of death. Features clinic dry and wet gangrene.

3. General and local treatment of necrosis, prevention.

4. Certain types of circulatory disorders, the concept of them, the value of collateral circulation.

5. Thrombosis and embolism: etiopathogenesis, clinic, treatment.

6. Obliterating atherosclerosis, obliterating endarteritis, thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger’s disease): etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment.

7. Trophic ulcers (varicose, post-traumatic, cicatricial, post-burn, etc.). Etiopathogenesis, clinic and treatment.

8. Bedsores: causes, clinic, treatment and prevention.

9. Fistulas: types, etiopathogenesis, prevention and treatment.

10. Lymphostasis: causes, clinic and treatment.

 

Topic 15. Basics of surgery for circulatory and lymph circulation disorders of the extremities.

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. Acute arterial insufficiency of the extremities. Definition, clinic, diagnosis, treatment.

2. Chronic arterial insufficiency of the extremities. Definition, clinic, diagnosis, treatment. Stage.

3. Critical lower limb ischemia.

4. Acute venous insufficiency of the extremities. Definition, clinic, diagnosis, treatment.

5. Chronic venous insufficiency of the extremities. Definition, clinic, diagnosis, treatment.

6. Disorder of lymph circulation.

 

        Topic 16. Surgery. Preoperative preparation of patients.

Form holding - practical lesson

Questions:

1. The concept of surgery, types of surgery.

2. Stages of surgery.

3. Anatomical and pathophysiological rationale for surgical operations.

4. The volume of study of the patient during planned and emergency operations.

5. Features and scope of research of patients, depending on the patient's age, area and organ from which the operation is performed.

6. Justification of indications for emergency and planned operations.

7. Preparation of organs and body systems for surgery, depending on the urgency and volume of the operation, the nature of the underlying disease

8. Monitoring the patient during the operation. Modern methods and equipment for monitoring the condition of the patient.

 

Subject 17. Post-operative period.

Form conducting - an interactive form-learning game: work in small groups.

Questions:

1. The postoperative period: the concept, pathophysiological changes in the body in this period.

2. Methods of monitoring patients in the postoperative period. Opportunities and methods of monitor surveillance.

3. Possible early postoperative complications from the postoperative wound and the operated organ and area. Their signs and diagnosis. Features after operations on the organs of the abdominal, pleural cavities, soft tissues and bones.

4. Late postoperative complications from the postoperative wound, the operated organ and the region, their clinical picture and diagnosis.

5. Complications of the internal organs, cardiovascular system, lungs, liver, kidneys and neuro-psychological sphere of the patient in the postoperative period, their signs and diagnosis.

6. Thromboembolic complications, risk factors, their occurrence, causes, clinical presentation, prevention and treatment.

7. Nutrition of patients and the value of care after surgery and the value of early activation of patients for the prevention of complications.

8. Treatment of complications arising from the operated organ or area.

 

Theme 18. History of the disease. Diagnostic algorithm. Epicrisis.

Form conducting - an interactive form-learning game: work in small groups.

Questions:

1. Analysis and discussion of case histories written by each student.

2. Algorithm - concept and types.

3. Epicrisis - the concept and types.