Questions on offset 2 course discipline
1. Definition and concept - Surgery.
2. Antiseptic. Definition of the concept. Types of antiseptics.
3. The mechanism of action of antiseptics. Characteristics of basic antiseptics and antibiotics. Methods of use of antiseptic drugs.
4. Asepsis. Definition of the concept. The value of asepsis for surgery in modern conditions.
5. Sources of infection. The concept of nosocomial, intrahospital, nosocomial infection.
6. Organization of the surgical department, its layout, main premises and their device. Chamber, dressing, their equipment and cleaning.
7. Operational unit, its device and equipment. Cleaning in the operating room, its types.
8. Orders and instructions of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation on the prevention of intra-hospital infection. The essence of the orders.
9. Dressings: its types and basic properties. Requirements for dressings.
10. Training of hands of the personnel for operation.
11. Preparation of the surgical field.
12. Suture material, its types and purpose, classification by source. Requirements.
13. Autoplastic and homoplastic materials used in surgery and traumatology and their sterilization.
14. General anesthesia (anesthesia). Types of anesthesia as prescribed. The mechanism of action of drugs on the body (the theory of anesthesia).
15. The clinical course of anesthesia in stages.
16. Mask anesthesia. Indications, contraindications and complications.
17. Endotracheal anesthesia. Indications, contraindications and complications.
18. Intravenous anesthesia. Indications, contraindications and complications.
19. Local anesthesia. Methods of local anesthesia. Indications, contraindications and complications.
20. Conductive, spinal and epidural anesthesia. Indications, contraindications and complications.
21. Neuroleptanalgesia. Indications, contraindications and complications, drugs used.
22. Methods of management of vital body functions (artificial hypotension, hypothermia).
23. Reanimation. Notion Vital functions of the body, their types and causes of violations, their types.
24. The concept of bleeding and blood loss. The hemostasis system is normal.
24. Classification of bleeding.
26. Temporary methods to stop bleeding.
27. Methods for the final stop of bleeding. Treatment of blood loss.
28. Central venous pressure (CVP). The method of determination and value for determining the volume of blood loss and the degree of dehydration.
29. The hemostasis system is normal. Methods for the study of hemostasis. Thromboembolic complications, causes, clinical presentation, treatment and prevention.
30. Hemorrhagic syndrome in surgery. DIC or TGS-syndrome.
31. The concept of endogenous intoxication and its main types in surgical patients.
32. Effective detoxification methods. Concept, types, indications.
33. Introductory electrolyte disorders in surgical patients, causes. Methods for correcting electrolyte-induced disturbances, used solutions.
34. Erythrocyte and plasma factors of blood groups (agglutinogens and agglutinins). Designations of blood types.
35. The method of determining blood groups. Errors in the determination of blood groups.
36. Rh factor, its value, the method of determination.
37. Compatibility tests. Methods of conducting tests.
38. Thermal burns. Classification by degrees and stages of flow. Methods for determining the area of destruction.
39. First aid for thermal burns. Complications of thermal burns.
40. Chemical burns of the skin. Causes, first aid and treatment. Chemical burns of the esophagus, clinic, first aid.
41. Frostbite, causes, classification by degrees and area of damage.
42. First aid and treatment for frostbite. Technique of imposing thermoisolating dressings. Freezing, symptoms, first aid and treatment.
43. Electric shock. Causes, local and general effects of electric current on the body. First aid and treatment for electrical injuries.
44. Wounds, classification by origin and nature of wounds, their localization and relationship to the cavities of the body.
45. The course of the wound process, depending on its phase.
46. First aid for wounds, depending on their nature, complications and attitudes to the body cavities. General principles of treatment of wounds.
47. Primary surgical treatment of wounds. General concepts and its principles.
48. General principles of treatment of infected wounds. General and local treatment of infected wounds. Wound drainage methods.
49. Developmental impairments: concept, classification, treatment principles.
50. Transplantology. Basics of plastic surgery.
51. Tumors: definitions and features of tumors of different tissues.
52. Parasitic diseases: classification and main differences.
53. Desmurgy. Bandages on the body and abdomen.
54. Desmurgy. Headbands.
55. Desmurgy. Bandages on the limbs.