for general surgery exams for the 3rd year students


1. Aseptic, concept, endogenous and exogenous sources of infection. Intrahospital infection, concept, prevention. Orders of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation regulating the implementation of measures to prevent purulent infection.

2. Antiseptic, concept, species. Ideological predecessors of antiseptics (L.Paster, N.I. Pirogov) and its creators (I.Zemmelweis, D.Lister). Antiseptics and proteolytic enzymes, classification, methods of application.

3. Prevention of air and droplet infection. Organization of the surgical department (wards, dressing rooms, operating unit). Cleaning in the operating room, its types.

4. Prevention of contact infection. Surgical instruments: classification, features of the device, care, sterilization.

5. Prevention of contact infection. Operating linen, operating and dressing materials, requirements for them, their types, sterilization. Autoclave: its device and work.

6. Prevention of contact infection: preparation of the surgeon's hands for surgery, their methods, sterilization of gloves, preparation of the operating field.

7. Prevention of implantation (implanted) infection. Suture and alloplastic materials: their types, basic requirements for suture material. Sterilization.

8. Characteristics of blood groups. Methods and methods of their determination, errors, their classification and ways of warning.

9. Rh factor and blood cell factor, antigenic structure, importance in surgery, donation in obstetrics, gynecology and pediatrics, methods of determination.

10. Bleeding and blood loss, concept, classification, causes. The reaction of the body to blood loss, pathophysiological and compensatory mechanisms, developing at the same time. Mechanisms of hemostasis, methods of its study.

11. Methods of stopping bleeding: temporary and final (mechanical, chemical, physical, biological). Treatment of hemorrhage.

12. Indications and contraindications for transfusion of blood and its components. Compatibility tests. The mechanism of action of transfused blood and its components.

13. Errors, dangers and complications in blood transfusion: classification, clinic, treatment.

14. Blood substitutes and plasma substitutes (hemocorrectors), classification, indications for use, complications in transfusion and their prophylaxis.

15. Blood preparations: types, indications for use.

16. Modern concepts of blood transfusion. Components of blood: their characteristics, storage conditions, indications for use. Ways and methods of transfusion of blood and its components.

17. Sources of blood for transfusion (reinfusion, autotransfusion, donor blood). Donation.

18. Lymphostasis, the main causes, diagnosis and treatment.

19. Water-electrolyte and acid-base disorders in surgical patients,

      causes, clinic, diagnosis, correction Endogenous surgical intoxication,

     causes, clinic, diagnosis, conservative and surgical treatment. Methods


20. General anesthesia, its types, the effect of narcotic substances on the body.

       Preparation for general anesthesia, premedication. Clinical course of anesthesia.

21. Local anesthesia, its types, the drugs used, their pharmacodynamics,

      indications, contraindications, dangers and complications.

22. Intravenous anesthesia, drugs used for it. Indications, contraindications,


23. Muscle relaxants, indications for use, mechanism of action, complications.

24. Inhalation anesthesia, its kinds, indications, complications and struggle with them.

25. Neuroleptanalgesia (NLA): indications, drugs used for it.

26. Equipment for anesthesia and artificial ventilation (IVL), methods of mechanical ventilation.

      Principles of anesthesia apparatus.

27. Resuscitation, concept. Ways to restore cardiovascular and respiratory

     activities in the provision of first aid and in the treatment in intensive care units.

28. Terminal states, clinical characteristics, first aid and treatment.

29. Wounds, classification. Morphological and biochemical changes in the wound. Are common

      principles of treatment of fresh wounds.

30. Primary surgical treatment of wounds, its terms and their justification, technique. Types of seams,

      used in the initial surgical treatment of wounds.

31. Treatment of festering wounds, treatment and methods of their treatment.

32. Bitten wounds: clinical manifestations, peculiarities of treatment, complications.

33. Penetrating wounds of the pleural cavity, complications, first aid, treatment.

34. Traumatism: concept, causes, classification, organization of first aid and treatment

35. Shock, its types, pathogenesis, clinic, diagnosis, first aid and treatment

      traumatic shock.

36. Shock, its types. Traumatic shock, etiopathogenesis, clinic, diagnosis, treatment,


37. Thermal burns and burn disease, classification, disorders of the body with

   burns, determination of the area and degree of burn, first aid and treatment of burn disease.

38. Electrical injury: etiopathogenesis, classification, local and general manifestations, the first

      help and treatment.

39. Frostbites: etiopathogenesis, classification, clinic, first aid, treatment,


40. Chemical burns of skin and mucous membranes: causes, features of acid burns and

      alkalis, first aid and treatment.

41. Injuries to the chest and organs in it: a clinic, first aid, treatment.

42. Injuries of the abdominal cavity and its organs: mechanism, clinic, diagnosis, first aid and


43. Closed fractures of long bones: biomechanism, classification, general and local

      phenomena, clinic, diagnostics.

44. Open fractures of long bones: the features of the clinic, first aid and treatment,

      complications and their treatment.

45. Closed injuries of soft tissues (bruises, sprains, tears), mechanism, clinic,

      first aid, treatment.

46. ​​Delayed consolidation and false joints in the treatment of bone fractures: causes,


47. Transport immobilization in bone fractures, types of immobilizing

      materials, rules of immobilization.

48. The syndrome of prolonged compression and the syndrome of positional compression, causes, pathogenesis,

      clinic, classification, first aid, treatment.

49. Functional method of treatment of bone fractures: species, indications for use.

50. Compression-distraction osteosynthesis: its place in the treatment of bone fractures,

      indications for use.

51. Gypsum: its properties, determination of suitability, plaster casts, species, indications to

      application, complications.

52. Dislocation of joints: biomechanism, types of dislocations of individual joints, clinic, diagnosis,

      first aid, treatment.

53. Bedsores: concept, cause, signs, treatment, prevention.

54. Acute purulent diseases, general issues of etiopathogenesis, stages, classification,

      clinic, diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

55. Acute purulent diseases of the skin and subcutaneous fat (furuncle,

    furunculosis, carbuncle, hydradenitis, abscesses, phlegmon): etiopathogenesis, clinic, treatment.

56. Purulent processes of the cellulose tissue of the retroperitoneal space and the pelvis, purulent paranephritis.

57. Acute purulent diseases of the hand and fingers: etiopathogenesis, classification,

      clinic, treatment, prevention.

58. Subfascial and intermuscular phlegmons of the extremities, phlegmon of the foot, cause,

      clinic, diagnosis and treatment.

59. Axillary and subpectoral phlegmon, causes, clinic, diagnosis and treatment

60. Purulent diseases of glandular organs (parotitis, pancreatitis, prostatitis), causes,

      clinic, diagnosis and treatment.

61. Acute purulent-destructive diseases of the abdominal cavity and peritonitis:

      etiopathogenesis, clinic, diagnosis, treatment.

62. Purulent and purulent-destructive diseases of the lungs and pleural cavity:

      etiopathogenesis, classification, clinic, diagnosis, treatment.

63. Lymphangitis, lymphadonitis, adenoflegion, etiopathogenesis, clinic, treatment.

64. Neck phlegmon, causes, clinic, diagnosis, treatment.

65. Mastitis: etiopathogenesis, classification, clinic, diagnosis, treatment, prevention.

66. Erysipelatous skin inflammation: etiopathogenesis, classification, clinic, treatment.

67. Surgical forms of pulmonary tuberculosis and tuberculous lymphadenitis, forms,

      clinic, diagnosis, treatment.

68. Anaerobic gas gangrene, pathogens, pathogenesis, clinic, treatment, prevention.

69. Purulent arthritis and bursitis, cause, clinic, diagnosis, treatment.

70. Acute and chronic paraproctitis, causes, clinic, diagnosis and treatment.

71. Inflammatory diseases of veins (phlebitis, thrombophlebitis, phlebothrombosis), the cause,

      clinic, diagnosis, treatment.

72. Antibiotic therapy for purulent surgical diseases, indications, complications and

      modern problems.

73. General purulent infection (sepsis), etiopathogenesis, classification, clinic, diagnosis,

      treatment and prevention.

74. Osteomyelitis: concept, etiopathogenesis, classification, clinic, diagnosis and treatment.

75. Syphilis of bones and joints: clinic, differential diagnostics with osteomyelitis and

      tuberculosis, treatment.

76. Tuberculosis of the spine: a clinic, diagnostics, treatment.

77. Tuberculosis coke and driving: clinic, diagnosis, treatment.

78. Purulent meningitis and abscesses of the brain, cause, clinic, diagnosis and treatment.

79. Purulent mediastinitis, causes, clinic, diagnosis, treatment.

80. Gangrene: concept, causes. Gangrene in vascular diseases of the extremities,

      causes, clinic, diagnosis, treatment.

81. Malformations of the skull, brain and spinal cord. Reason, clinic, diagnosis,

      principles of treatment.

82. Malformations of the development of the cardiovascular system: clinic, diagnosis, treatment.

83. Congenital diseases of the neck: clinic, diagnosis, treatment.

84. Congenital diseases of the digestive tract: clinic, diagnosis, treatment.

85. Malformations of the genitourinary system: types, clinic, diagnosis, treatment.

86. Congenital malformations of the spine: a clinic, diagnosis, treatment.


87. Congenital malformations of limbs: clinic, diagnosis, treatment.

88. General data on tumors, etiopathogenesis, precancerous diseases, classification,

      Clinic, general principles of diagnosis and treatment.

89. Tumors of muscular, vascular and nerve tissue: clinic, treatment.

90. Benign tumors of connective tissue: clinic, treatment.

91. Benign epithelial tumors: signs, treatment, depending on


92. Malignant tumors of connective tissue: clinic, diagnosis, treatment.

93. Tetanus: etiopathogenesis, classification, clinic, treatment, emergency and planned


94. Rabies, etiopathogenesis, prevention and antiepidemic measures.

95. Empyema, the concept. Empyema of individual localizations, clinic, diagnosis, treatment.

96. Fistulas: concept, classification, clinic, treatment.

97. Obliterating arterial diseases of the extremities, thrombosis and embolism: etiopathogenesis,

      clinic, diagnosis, treatment, complications and their treatment.

98. Actinomycosis: etiopathogenesis, basic localization, clinic, treatment. Candidomycosis,

      causes, treatment.

99. Askaridosis and the surgical diseases caused by it: a clinic, treatment.

100. Echinococcosis and alveococcosis: etiopathogenesis, clinic, diagnosis, complications,


101. Opisthorchiasis, pathways of infection, clinic, diagnosis, treatment.

102. Anthrax and diphtheria of wounds: a clinic, differential diagnostics with

 purulent diseases, treatment, prevention.

      103. Ulcers, the concept. Trophic ulcers of the lower extremities: causes, clinic, treatment.

      104. Transplantation of tissues, organs and cells: indications, classification of tissues in dependence

              from the source of receipt.

      105. Plastic of the skin, muscles, vessels, nerves, bones: indications, methods.

      106. Preoperative preparation and its scope, depending on the nature of the operation and its


      107. Preoperative period, scope of examination of a patient before surgery,

              preparation of organs and systems of the body, its features in emergency operations.

      108. Surgical operation, concept, species, anatomical and physiological

               substantiation of surgical operations.

      109. Postoperative period, care of patients, possible complications, their treatment

               and prevention.

      110. Catheterization, puncture and drainage of the bladder, indications, technique.

111. Puncture and catheterization of peripheral and central veins, indications, techniques,


 112. Puncture of cavities of joints and bones, indications, technique.

 113. Puncture and drainage of the pleural cavity, indications, technique.

 114. Puncture of pericardium, indications, technique, points.

 115. Puncture of the cavities of the heart, indications, technique.

 116. Puncture of abdominal cavity - laparocentesis, indications, technique, possible


 117. Lumbar puncture, indications, technique.

 118. Indications for sensing and draining of the esophagus, stomach, thin and thick

         intestines. Technique, possible complications.

 119. Drainage of hollow organs of the abdominal cavity through natural openings and with

         using operations, indications. Principles of conducting.

 120. Drainage of wounds and body cavities, types of drainage (active, passive,

         washing and aspiration).