General surgery. Introduction to the specialty

on specialty 31.05.01 "Medical business"


1. Goals and objectives of the discipline

introducing students to the specialty, determining the place of surgery among all medical disciplines; teach the student to apply knowledge of anatomy, physiology and other fundamental disciplines to solve specific practical clinical problems, master the basic principles of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of surgical diseases and perform general medical procedures.

Studying the fundamentals of modern clinical surgery forms clinical thinking and allows the student to subsequently successfully understand not only the diagnosis and treatment of certain surgical diseases, but also master other medical subjects.


2. Place of discipline in the PLO structure

In accordance with the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education, the discipline B1.B.24 "General surgery. Introduction to the specialty" refers to the basic part of the specialty disciplines on May 31, 01 "Medicine" (level of specialty) of higher medical education and is studied in the fourth and fifth semesters. Mastering discipline is based on knowledge, skills and skills, formed by previous disciplines and practices:

Biology: knowledge: general patterns of origin and development of life; anthropogenesis and human ontogeny; laws of genetics, its importance for medicine; regularities of heredity and variability in individual development as a basis for understanding the pathogenesis and etiology of hereditary and multifactorial human diseases; skills: use physical and biological equipment, work with magnifying equipment (microscopes, optical and simple loops); to draw up a family pedigree outline based on interviewing patients; skills: to determine the type of inheritance of diseases of internal organs.

 Biochemistry: knowledge: the chemical and biological essence of processes occurring in a living organism, at the molecular and cellular levels; structure and biochemical properties of the main classes of biologically important compounds, the main metabolic pathways of their transformation; the role of cell membranes and their transport systems in metabolism in the body; safety rules and work in chemical and biological laboratories, with reagents, instruments, animals; skills: a substantiation of the standard of biochemical laboratory researches at various diseases of internal organs; skills: interpreting the results of the most common methods of laboratory biochemical research.

 Human Anatomy: knowledge: anatomical and physiological features of the structure and development of the human body; skills: to correlate the topography of internal organs with the projection on the surface of the human body in the clinical study of the patient; skills: to determine the projection of internal organs on the surface of the patient's body.

Histology, embryology, cytology: knowledge: the basic laws of development and life activity of the human body on the basis of the structural organization of cells, tissues and organs; histo-functional features of tissue elements; skill: analyze the histological state of various cellular, tissue and organ structures of a person; work with magnifying equipment (microscopes, optical and simple loops); skills: to interpret the results of histological examination of biopsy material of normal organs.

Normal physiology: knowledge: the basic physical phenomena and patterns underlying the processes occurring in the human body; functional systems of the human body, their regulation and self-regulation under the influence of the environment in the norm; skill: orientation in the mechanisms of functional processes in the human body; skills: interpreting the results of normal instrumental and laboratory research methods.

Educational practice "Care for the sick": knowledge: types of sanitary treatment of patients, types of fevers, features of observation and care for patients with diseases of various body systems; skills: medical treatment of a patient when entering a hospital and during a hospital stay, changing the bed linen and bed linen of a patient, treatment of decubitus; care for patients of different age, suffering from diseases of various organs and systems, their transportation; thermometry, daily diuresis control, collection of biological material for laboratory studies, anthropometry, setting of different types of enemas, feeding of severe patients; disinfection and pre-sterilization preparation of medical instruments, materials and means of care for patients; skills: care for patients, taking into account their age, nature and severity of the disease; care for seriously ill and agonizing patients.   


3. Requirements for the results of the discipline

The study of the discipline "General Surgery. Introduction to the specialty "as part of the development of the educational program is aimed at the formation of the following general professional and professional competencies in students:

№ п/п

Competency Index

 Content of competence

(or part thereof)

As a result of studying the academic discipline, students should:


how to




Readiness for medical use of drugs and other substances and their combinations in solving professional problems.

Medicinal products



in the treatment





drugs with




The technique of subcutaneous and intramuscular injections



Readiness for the use of medical products provided for by the order of medical care.

The main modern medical products, instruments and apparatus

Choose the right medical products for the necessary surgical care

The main medical products and use them correctly



Readiness to collect and analyze patient complaints, data of his anamnesis, results of examination, laboratory, instrumental patho-loganatomical and other studies in order to locate the condition or establish the fact of presence or absence of disease.

Diagnostic value of the changes revealed in the clinical study of the patient, the use of laboratory-instrumental diagnostic methods.

Conduct a survey, physical examination of the patient; interpret the results of laboratory-instrumental diagnostics and use it to substantiate the diagnosis and choose surgical tactics.

By the methods of clinical investigation of the patient surgical profile, interpretation of the results of additional methods of research for rational choice of the method of operative intervention.



The ability to identify patients in the main pathological conditions, symptoms, disease syndromes, nosological forms in accordance with the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Problems - X revision adopted by the 43rd World Health Assembly, Geneva, 1989.








forms in

According to










forms in

According to

ICD in patients

with the studied pathology.




The ability to determine the tactics of managing patients with various nosological forms.

Management Tactics patients with



and forms.

Identify tactics of

patient with studied

nosological and forms.




4. General complexity of the discipline

         The total complexity of the discipline is 6 credits (216 hours), of which contact work is 126 hours, including 18 hours in an interactive form.


5. Educational technologies

In the course of mastering the discipline during the classroom activities, the following educational technologies are used: lecture-practice-test technology, problem-based training, business, role-playing and operational training games and health-saving technologies.

When organizing the independent work of classes, the following educational technologies are used: information and communication technologies; work with X-ray images, work with methodological and educational literature.


6. Monitoring the progress

The discipline program provides for the following types of current control: test control, solution of situational tasks, and oral questioning.

A reporting form is provided for this discipline: examination sheet, medical history, student attendance journal.

Interim certification is carried out in the form of:

test - in the 4th semester, exam - in the 5th semester